Fiat Zero 12/15 hp
from 1912 to 1915
Fiat Tipo 1
The Fiat Zero , also known as the Fiat 12/15 hp , is a car produced by the Turin-based car manufacturer FIAT from 1912 to 1915 .
Before the outbreak of the First World War European car manufacturers began mass-production, following the example of Henry Ford in Detroit. The Fiat company was not among the passive onlookers. As early as 1910 the prototypes of the future Fiat Zero had been seen in the streets of Turin. They were first introduced on the market as late as 1912, when the assembly lines and modified conditions of volume production had been well run in.
Although the Fiat Zero followed the '1' model, it was shorter than its predecessor hence the name Zero.
This car, thanks to its performance, realiabiity, longevity, and low price, was highly favoured by the public. The Zero was fitted with a 15hp four-cylinder in-line 1846 cc engine, with bore and stroke of 70 x 120mm. The drive to the rear axle was transmitted via a four-speed gearbox and a propeller shaft.
The chassis was supported on longitudinal semi-elliptic springs at the front and quarter-elliptic springs at the rear.
The first models were sold in the 'teardrop' version. By 1915 2041 had been built. One necessity for mass-production was strict standardization of all materials and prefabricated sections. Thanks to the standardization introduced in the production of this model, the use of different kinds of steel was cut down to one third, out of a thousand steel tubes only 36 were used, and 52 bearings instead of several hundred. This simplified supply, storage, and assembly procedures.
In 1915 an improved version of the Zero model was announced, fitted with a more powerful engine developing 14kW (19hp) at 2000 rpm. This car had electric lighting. It weighed 900kg (19801b) and had a top speed of 62km/h (39mph). The company provided a chassis fitted with either Spider or Laudaulet coachwork. A windscreen was among the novelties introduced in this model. Until then drivers had regarded this as unnecessary, since it obstructed the
view on a nice day and was a nuisance when it rained.
The Fiat Zero was an important model for the history of Pininfarina ; its founder, not yet an entrepreneur but a simple designer , prepared a design for the car's radiator and his design was chosen in contrast to that prepared by the technicians of Fiat itself.
The car, sold by the house in torpedo configuration , cost 8,000 lire , then lowered to 6,900 lire The Zero was equipped with an engine of 1.9 liters which developed 15 hp and could reach 70 km / h. The car traveled about 5.1 km per liter. The Zero was the first Fiat car to be sold in more than 2000 copies .However, it was not a popular car, as its price of 8,000 lire was equivalent to that of an apartment and still made it inaccessible to most .
In 1915 the electrical system was also installed, but production ceased due to the transformation of FIAT into a war industry following the entry of Italy into the First World War .
Production stoped due to world war one, when the factory was converted for war production .
Fiat Zero Technical details and specifications
Body :four-door torpedo , with wooden frame and steel sheet covering; waterproof canvas cover
Engine position : longitudinal front
Traction : rear
Dimensions and weights
Dimensions (length × width × × height in mm ): 3660 × 1450 × 1180
Minimum turning circle diameter : 10.3 m
Wheelbase : 2645 mm
Carriageways : front 1200 - rear 1200 mm
Minimum height from the ground : 245 mm
Total seats: two front seats and two rear seats
Luggage compartment :
empty: 900 kg
Motor type : 51 A, 4-stroke petrol, Compression ratio : 4.2: 1. Water circulation coolingwith centrifugal pump
Displacement : ( Bore and stroke : 70 x 120 mm) 1847 cm³
Distribution : 2 valves per cylinder, side valves controlled by a cam axis in the crankcase
Power supply : carburettor
Power : 19 hp at 1800 rpm
Ignition : high voltage magnet, burst order: 1-3-4-2
Electrical system : 12 V (only from 1915)
Clutch : dry single-disc
Gearbox : 4-speed + RM,helical bevel gear pair contained in the rear axle
Frame with bent side members, with reinforcement crosspieces
with worm screw and helical wheel
front: rigid bridge, with semi-elliptical / rear leaf springs : rigid bridge, with semi-elliptic leaf springs
front: / rear: hand expanding mechanical, belt pedal on the transmission
Low pressure 760X90 / Looking for : Spoke type Sankey
Speed : 70 km / h
12 l / 100 Km (8.3 Km / l)
forced, with gear pump
Maximum slope overcome
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